Google Caffeine Search Engine
'to move away from' keyword search advertising - 13th
- Google is looking moving away from keyword-based
technology for search advertising, it has announced.
report in PC Advisor magazine today reported the comments
of Nicholas Fox, the business product management director
for Google AdWords, speaking at California’s
Search Engine Strategies conference.
was reported as saying that keyword searches are currently
a "bit of a game" and that other approaches
are being considered.
is quoted as saying: "I see the keyword as an
intermediary that we came up with five or ten years
used the example of a plumber, who might provide details
on the location of his operations and services.
added that more money would be poured into searches
based on image recognition and mobile technology,
which provides better location details.
news comes a day after Google unveiled details of
its new Caffeine search engine, which is promised
to return quicker and more accurate results.
Allows Poker Affiliates to Bid on Search Terms, Dan
Cypra - 10th January 2008
Poker News Daily)
world of Google AdWords is about to change, as the
site recently announced a modification of its policy
towards gambling. Affiliates of internet gambling
sites can now bid on popular industry terms, such
as “online poker,” according to a press
release distributed Friday by Income Access. The opportunity,
for the moment, is limited to the United Kingdom.
site, which is a marketing agency for the internet
gambling market, has been advising affiliates on how
to bid on search terms effectively. Operators in the
industry, such as the sites themselves, have been
allowed to pursue pay per click (PPC) advertising
since November of 2008. Now, affiliates will be able
to take part as well, likely bidding up prices of
popular search terms related to online poker and online
casinos. Several of the world’s largest internet
gambling companies, such as William Hill, Sportingbet,
888, and Party Gaming, are all traded on the London
Stock Exchange. None of the four caters to the U.S.
Access’ Daniel Bakerman told Poker News Daily
why affiliates are important customers to the mammoth
search engine: “Google has a vested interest
in making sure affiliates are successful. They are
huge spenders and represent a good market for Google.”
The Income Access press release notes that affiliates
will not be able to bid on the sites they promote,
such as the terms “PartyPoker” or “Paradise
Poker.” Operators, on the other hand, are able
to bid on their competition’s names.
added that search engine traffic is an important source
of revenue for affiliates not just in online poker,
but also in other industries: “Affiliates make
a lot of money using PPC advertising in industries
such as retail. If it’s done well, it’s
a way to attract targeted traffic to your site. You
can get your ads displayed right in front of people
who are searching for what you’re offering.
Another benefit is that you get an instantaneous result
for the money you put in.” For example, rather
than increasing a site’s ranking in Google organically,
which can take months of publishing relevant unique
content, AdWords allows sites to be pushed to the
top of search returns quickly.
links for the search term “poker book”
include links to eBay and Amazon as well as a host
of private sites. These links appear to the right
of the traditional list of search returns. In some
cases, Google returns shopping links at the top as
well. Income Access, meanwhile, has created a Search
Engine Marketing (SEM) branch to help affiliates wade
through the sometimes confusing world of AdWords.
Bakerman explained, “Income Access also built
in a lot of tools for affiliates they can use in conjunction
with PPC advertising that will let them calculate
their return on investment. We provide tools that
operators can use to track players and show reports.”
gives advertisers access to click stats and conversion
rates. However, because affiliates must use third
party online poker sites in order to validate that
a player is properly tracked, conversion rates are
sometimes difficult to quantify. Income Access, in
several cases, also created the software operators
use to track affiliate revenue. For example, the company
works with Canbet, Ladbrokes, and Unibet in the poker
vertical. It also has relationships with Paradise
Poker, Sportingbet, Victor Chandler, and Purple Lounge.
to The Telegraph, in order for an operator to be able
to advertise with Google, it must be registered with
the Gambling Commission or the European Economic Area
“provided they are registered with their national
regulator.” The advertisements will not appear
in search engine filters that regularly block out
Inc. (NASDAQ: GOOG and LSE: GGEA) is an American public
corporation, specializing in Internet search and online
advertising. The company is based in Mountain View,
California, and has 15,916 full-time employees (as
of September 30, 2007). It is the largest American
company (by market capitalization) that is not part
of the Dow Jones Industrial Average.
was co-founded by Larry Page and Sergey Brin while
they were students at Stanford University and the
company was first incorporated as a privately held
company on September 7, 1998. Google's initial public
offering took place on August 19, 2004, raising US$1.67
billion, making it worth US$23 billion. Through a
series of new product developments, acquisitions and
partnerships, the company has expanded its initial
search and advertising business into other areas,
including web-based email, online mapping, office
productivity, and video sharing, among others.
2006, "google" came in 2nd on Merriam-Webster's
Words of the Year.
History of Google
began in January 1996, as a research project by Larry
Page and Sergey Brin, two Ph.D. students at Stanford
University, California. They hypothesized that a search
engine that analyzed the relationships between websites
would produce better ranking of results than existing
techniques, which ranked results according to the
number of times the search term appeared on a page.
Their search engine was originally nicknamed "BackRub"
because the system checked backlinks to estimate a
site's importance.A small search engine called Rankdex
was already exploring a similar strategy.
that the pages with the most links to them from other
highly relevant web pages must be the most relevant
pages associated with the search, Page and Brin tested
their thesis as part of their studies, and laid the
foundation for their search engine. Originally, the
search engine used the Stanford University website
with the domain google.stanford.edu. The domain google.com
was registered on September 15, 1997, and the company
was incorporated as Google Inc. on September 7, 1998
at a friend's garage in Menlo Park, California. The
total initial investment raised for the new company
eventually amounted to almost US$1.1 million, including
a US$100,000 check by Andy Bechtolsheim, one of the
founders of Sun Microsystems.
founders originally were keen to acquire the domain
"Googol.com". It was registered to a local
Silicon Valley engineer (Tim Beauchamp) who was using
it as a site for math and astronomy. He did not want
to relinquish the domain at the time.
March 1999, the company moved into offices in Palo
Alto, home to several other noted Silicon Valley technology
startups. After quickly outgrowing two other sites,
the company leased a complex of buildings in Mountain
View at 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway from Silicon Graphics
(SGI) in 2003. The company has remained at this location
ever since, and the complex has since come to be known
as the Googleplex (a play on the word googolplex,
a 1 followed by a googol zeros). In 2006, Google bought
the property from SGI for US$319 million.
Google search engine attracted a loyal following among
the growing number of Internet users, who liked its
simple design and usability. In 2000, Google began
selling advertisements associated with search keywords.
The ads were text-based to maintain an uncluttered
page design and to maximize page loading speed. Keywords
were sold based on a combination of price bid and
clickthroughs, with bidding starting at US$.05 per
click. This model of selling keyword advertising was
pioneered by Goto.com (later renamed Overture Services,
before being acquired by Yahoo! and rebranded as Yahoo!
Search Marketing). While many of its dot-com rivals
failed in the new Internet marketplace, Google quietly
rose in stature while generating revenue.
name "Google" originated from a misspelling
of "googol", which refers to 10100, the
number represented by a 1 followed by one-hundred
zeros. Having found its way increasingly into everyday
language, the verb "google", was added to
the Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary and the
Oxford English Dictionary in 2006, meaning "to
use the Google search engine to obtain information
on the Internet."
patent describing part of Google's ranking mechanism
(PageRank) was granted on September 4, 2001. The patent
was officially assigned to Stanford University and
lists Lawrence Page as the inventor.
and initial public offering
first funding for Google as a company was secured
in the form of a US$100,000 contribution from Andy
Bechtolsheim, co-founder of Sun Microsystems, given
to a corporation which did not yet exist. Around six
months later, a much larger round of funding was announced,
with the major investors being rival venture capital
firms Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers and Sequoia
initial public offering took place on August 19, 2004.
19,605,052 shares were offered at a price of US$85
per share. Of that, 14,142,135 (another mathematical
reference as v2 ˜ 1.4142135) were floated by
Google and 5,462,917 by selling stockholders. The
sale raised US$1.67 billion, and gave Google a market
capitalization of more than US$23 billion. The vast
majority of Google's 271 million shares remained under
Google's control. Many of Google's employees became
instant paper millionaires. Yahoo!, a competitor of
Google, also benefited from the IPO because it owned
8.4 million shares of Google as of August 9, 2004,
ten days before the IPO.
post-IPO stock performance has been very good as well,
with shares hitting US$700 for the first time on October
31, 2007, due to strong sales and earnings in the
advertising market, as well as the release of new
features such as the desktop search function and personalized
home page. The surge in stock price is fueled primarily
by individual investors, as opposed to large institutional
investors and mutual funds.
company is listed on the NASDAQ stock exchange under
the ticker symbol GOOG and under the London Stock
Exchange under the ticker symbol GGEA
the company's primary business interest is in the
web content arena, Google has begun experimenting
with other markets, such as radio and print publications.
On January 17, 2006, Google announced that its purchase
of a radio advertising company "dMarc",
which provides an automated system that allows companies
to advertise on the radio. This will allow Google
to combine two niche advertising media—the Internet
and radio—with Google's ability to laser-focus
on the tastes of consumers. Google has also begun
an experiment in selling advertisements from its advertisers
in offline newspapers and magazines, with select advertisements
in the Chicago Sun-Times. They have been filling unsold
space in the newspaper that would have normally been
used for in-house advertisements.
was added to the S&P 500 index on March 30, 2006.
It replaced Burlington Resources, a major oil producer
based in Houston which was acquired by ConocoPhillips.
2004, Google formed a non-profit philanthropic wing,
Google.org, with a start-up fund of US$1 billion.
The express mission of the organization is to create
awareness about climate change, global public health,
and global poverty. One of its first projects is to
develop a viable plug-in hybrid electric vehicle that
can attain 100 mpg. The current director is Dr. Larry
2001, Google has acquired several small start-up companies,
often consisting of innovative teams and products.
One of the earlier companies that Google bought was
Pyra Labs. They were the creators of Blogger, a weblog
publishing platform, first launched in 1999. This
acquisition led to many premium features becoming
free. Pyra Labs was originally formed by Evan Williams,
yet he left Google in 2004. In early 2006, Google
acquired Upstartle, a company responsible for the
online word processor, Writely. The technology in
this product was used by Google to eventually create
Google Docs & Spreadsheets.
February 2006, software company Adaptive Path sold
Measure Map, a weblog statistics application, to Google.
Registration to the service has since been temporarily
disabled. The last update regarding the future of
Measure Map was made on April 6, 2006 and outlined
many of the service's known issues.
late 2006, Google bought online video site YouTube
for US$1.65 billion in stock. Shortly after, on October
31, 2006, Google announced that it had also acquired
JotSpot, a developer of wiki technology for collaborative
April 13, 2007, Google reached an agreement to acquire
DoubleClick. Google agreed to buy the company for
July 9, 2007, Google announced that it had signed
a definitive agreement to acquire enterprise messaging
security and compliance company Postini.
2005, Google entered into partnerships with other
companies and government agencies to improve production
and services. Google announced a partnership with
NASA Ames Research Center to build up 1,000,000 square
feet (93,000 m²) of offices and work on research
projects involving large-scale data management, nanotechnology,
distributed computing, and the entrepreneurial space
industry. Google also entered into a partnership with
Sun Microsystems in October to help share and distribute
each other's technologies. The company entered into
a partnership with Time Warner's AOL, to enhance each
other's video search services.
same year, the company became a major financial investor
of the new .mobi top-level domain for mobile devices,
in conjunction with several other companies, including
Microsoft, Nokia, and Ericcson among others. In September
2007, Google launched, "Adsense for Mobile",
a service for its publishing partners which provides
the ability to monetize their mobile websites through
the targeted placement of mobile text ads, and acquired
the mobile social networking site, Zingku.mobi, to
"provide people worldwide with direct access
to Google applications, and ultimately the information
they want and need, right from their mobile devices."
2006, Google and News Corp.'s Fox Interactive Media
entered into a US$900 million agreement to provide
search and advertising on the popular social networking
has created services and tools for the general public
and business environment alike; including Web applications,
advertising networks and solutions for businesses.
of Google's revenue is derived from advertising programs.
For the 2006 fiscal year, the company reported US$10.492
billion in total advertising revenues and only US$112
million in licensing and other revenues. Google AdWords
allows Web advertisers to display advertisements in
Google's search results and the Google Content Network,
through either a cost-per-click or cost-per-view scheme.
Google AdSense website owners can also display adverts
on their own site, and earn money every time ads are
is well-known for its web search service, which is
a major factor of the company's success. As of August
2007, Google is the most used search engine on the
web with a 53.6% market share, ahead of Yahoo! (19.9%)
and Live Search (12.9%). Google indexes billions of
Web pages, so that users can search for the information
they desire, through the use of keywords and operators.
Google has also employed the Web Search technology
into other search services, including Image Search,
Google News, the price comparison site Google Product
Search, the interactive Usenet archive Google Groups,
Google Maps, and more.
2004, Google launched its own free web-based e-mail
service, known as Gmail. Gmail features spam-filtering
technology and the capability to use Google technology
to search e-mail. The service generates revenue by
displaying advertisements from the AdWords service
that are tailored to the content of the e-mail messages
displayed on screen.
early 2006, the company launched Google Video, which
not only allows users to search and view freely available
videos but also offers users and media publishers
the ability to publish their content, including television
shows on CBS, NBA basketball games, and music videos.
In August 2007, Google announced that it would shut
down its video rental and sale program and offer refunds
and Google Checkout credits to consumers who had purchased
videos to own.
has also developed several desktop applications, including
Google Earth, an interactive mapping program powered
by satellite and aerial imagery that covers the vast
majority of the planet. Google Earth is generally
considered to be remarkably accurate and extremely
detailed. Many major cities have such detailed images
that one can zoom in close enough to see vehicles
and pedestrians clearly. Consequently, there have
been some concerns about national security implications.
Specifically, some countries and militaries contend
the software can be used to pinpoint with near-precision
accuracy the physical location of critical infrastructure,
commercial and residential buildings, bases, government
agencies, and so on. However, the satellite images
are not necessarily frequently updated, and all of
them are available at no charge through other products
and even government sources. For example, NASA and
the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency. Some
counter this argument by stating that Google Earth
makes it easier to access and research the images.
other products are available through Google Labs,
which is a collection of incomplete applications that
are still being tested for use by the general public.
has promoted their products in various ways. In London,
Google Space was set-up in Heathrow Airport, showcasing
several products, including Gmail, Google Earth and
Picasa. Also, a similar page was launched for American
college students, under the name College Life, Powered
2007, some reports surfaced that Google was planning
the release of its own mobile phone, possibly a competitor
to Apple's iPhone. The project, called Android provides
a standard development kit that will allow any "Android"
phone to run software developed for the Android SDK,
no matter the phone manufacturer. In October 2007,
Google SMS service was launched in India allowing
users to get business listings, movie showtimes, and
information by sending an SMS.
2007, Google launched Google Apps Premier Edition,
a version of Google Apps targeted primarily at the
business user. It includes such extras as more disk
space for e-mail, API access, and premium support,
for a price of US$50 per user per year. A large implementation
of Google Apps with 38,000 users is at Lakehead University
in Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada.
services are run on several server farms, each consisting
of thousands of low-cost commodity computers running
stripped-down versions of Linux. While the company
does not provide detailed information about its hardware,
a 2006 estimate consisted of over 450,000 servers,
racked up in clusters located in data centers around
has encouraged participation in various open source
projects with events such as Google Summer of Code
and the Google Highly Open Participation Contest.
affairs and culture
is particularly known for its relaxed corporate culture,
reminiscent of the Dot-com boom. In January 2007,
it was cited by Fortune Magazine as the #1 (of 100)
best company to work for. Google's corporate philosophy
is based on many casual principles including, "You
can make money without doing evil", "You
can be serious without a suit," and "Work
should be challenging and the challenge should be
fun." A complete list of corporate fundamentals
is available on Google's website. Google's relaxed
corporate culture can also be seen externally through
their holiday variations of the Google logo.
has been criticized for having salaries below industry
standards. For example, some system administrators
earn no more than US$35,000 per year – considered
to be quite low for the Bay Area job market. However,
Google's stock performance following its IPO has enabled
many early employees to be competitively compensated
by participation in the corporation's remarkable equity
growth. Google implemented other employee incentives
in 2005, such as the Google Founders' Award, in addition
to offering higher salaries to new employees. Google's
workplace amenities, culture, global popularity, and
strong brand recognition have also attracted potential
the company's IPO in August 2004, it was reported
that founders Sergey Brin and Larry Page, and CEO
Eric Schmidt, requested that their base salary be
cut to US$1.00. Subsequent offers by the company to
increase their salaries have been turned down, primarily
because, "their primary compensation continues
to come from returns on their ownership stakes in
Google. As significant stockholders, their personal
wealth is tied directly to sustained stock price appreciation
and performance, which provides direct alignment with
stockholder interests."Prior to 2004, Schmidt
was making US$250,000 per year, and Page and Brin
each earned a salary of US$150,000.
have all declined recent offers of bonuses and increases
in compensation by Google's board of directors. In
a 2007 report of the United States' richest people,
Forbes reported that Sergey Brin and Larry Page were
tied for #5 with a net worth of US$18.5 billion each.
a play on Google's name, its headquarters, in Mountain
View, California, is referred to as "the Googleplex"
— a googolplex being 1 followed by a googol
of zeros, and the HQ being a complex of buildings
(cf. multiplex, cineplex, etc). The lobby is decorated
with a piano, lava lamps, old server clusters, and
a projection of search queries on the wall. The hallways
are full of exercise balls and bicycles. Each employee
has access to the corporate recreation center. Recreational
amenities are scattered throughout the campus and
include a workout room with weights and rowing machines,
locker rooms, washers and dryers, a massage room,
assorted video games, Foosball, a baby grand piano,
a pool table, and ping pong. In addition to the rec
room, there are snack rooms stocked with various foods
2006, Google moved into 311,000 square feet (28,900
m²) of office space in New York City, at 111
Eighth Ave. in Manhattan. The office was specially
designed and built for Google and houses its largest
advertising sales team, which has been instrumental
in securing large partnerships, most recently deals
with MySpace and AOL. In 2003, they added an engineering
staff in New York City, which has been responsible
for more than 100 engineering projects, including
Google Maps, Google Spreadsheets, and others. It is
estimated that the building costs Google US$10 million
per year to rent and is similar in design and functionality
to its Mountain View headquarters, including Foosball,
air hockey, and ping-pong tables, as well as a video
game area. By late 2006, Google also established a
new headquarters for its AdWords division in Ann Arbor,
size of Google's search system is presently unknown;
the best estimates place the total number of the company's
servers at 450,000, spread over twenty five locations
throughout the world, including major operations centers
in Dublin (European Operations Headquarters) and Atlanta,
Georgia. Google is also in the process of constructing
a major operations center in The Dalles, Oregon, on
the banks of the Columbia River. The site, also referred
to by the media as Project 02, was chosen due to the
availability of inexpensive hydroelectric power and
a large surplus of fiber optic cable, left over from
the dot com boom of the late 1990s. The computing
center is estimated to be as large as two football
fields, and it has created hundreds of construction
jobs, causing local real estate prices to increase
40%. Upon completion, the center is expected to create
60 to 200 permanent jobs in the town of 12,000 people.
is also making steps to ensure that their operations
are environmentally sound. In October 2006, the company
announced plans to install thousands of solar panels
to provide up to 1.6 megawatts of electricity, enough
to satisfy approximately 30% of the campus' energy
needs. The system will be the largest solar power
system constructed on a U.S. corporate campus and
one of the largest on any corporate site in the world.
In June 2007, Google announced that they plan to become
carbon neutral by 2008, which includes investing in
energy efficiency, renewable energy sources, and purchasing
carbon offsets, such as investing in projects like
capturing and burning methane from animal waste at
Mexican and Brazilian farms.
Google engineers are encouraged to spend 20% of their
work time (one day per week) on projects that interest
them. Some of Google's newer services, such as Gmail,
Google News, Orkut, and AdSense originated from these
independent endeavors. In a talk at Stanford University,
Marissa Mayer, Google's Vice President of Search Products
and User Experience, stated that her analysis showed
that half of the new product launches originated from
the 20% time.
eggs and April Fool's Day jokes
has a tradition of creating April Fool's Day jokes
— such as Google MentalPlex, which allegedly
featured the use of mental power to search the web.
In 2002, they claimed that pigeons were the secret
behind their growing search engine. In 2004, they
featured Google Lunar (which claimed to feature jobs
on the moon), and in 2005, a fictitious brain-boosting
drink, termed Google Gulp was announced. In 2006,
they came up with Google Romance, a hypothetical online
dating service. In 2007, Google announced two joke
products. The first was a free wireless Internet service
called TiSP (Toilet Internet Service Provider) 
in which one obtained a connection by flushing one
end of a fiber-optic cable down their toilet and waiting
only an hour for a "Plumbing Hardware Dispatcher
(PHD)" to connect it to the Internet. Additionally,
Google's Gmail page displayed an announcement for
Gmail Paper, which allows users of their free email
service to have email messages printed and shipped
to a snail mail address.
thought the announcement of Gmail in 2004 around April
Fool's Day (as well as the doubling of Gmail's storage
space to two gigabytes in 2005) was a joke, although
both of these turned out to be genuine announcements.
In 2005, a comedic graph depicting Google's goal of
"infinity plus one" GB of storage was featured
on the Gmail homepage.
services contain a number of Easter eggs; for instance,
the Language Tools page offers the search interface
in the Swedish Chef's "Bork bork bork,"
Pig Latin, ”Hacker” (actually leetspeak),
Elmer Fudd, and Klingon. In addition, the search engine
calculator provides the Answer to Life, the Universe,
and Everything from Douglas Adams' The Hitchhiker's
Guide to the Galaxy. As Google's search box can be
used as a unit converter (as well as a calculator),
some non-standard units are built in, such as the
Smoot. Google also routinely modifies its logo in
accordance with various holidays or special events
throughout the year, such as Christmas, Mother's Day,
or various birthdays of notable individuals.
people speculated that Google's IPO would inevitably
lead to changes in the company's culture, because
of shareholder pressure for employee benefit reductions
and short-term advances, or because a large number
of the company's employees would suddenly become millionaires
on paper. In a report given to potential investors,
co-founders Sergey Brin and Larry Page promised that
the IPO would not change the company's culture. Later
Mr. Page said, "We think a lot about how to maintain
our culture and the fun elements. We spent a lot of
time getting our offices right. We think it's important
to have a high density of people. People are packed
together everywhere. We all share offices. We like
this set of buildings because it's more like a densely
packed university campus than a typical suburban office
many analysts are finding that as Google grows, the
company is becoming more "corporate". In
2005, articles in The New York Times and other sources
began suggesting that Google had lost its anti-corporate,
no evil philosophy. In an effort to maintain the company's
unique culture, Google has designated a Chief Culture
Officer in 2006, who also serves as the Director of
Human Resources. The purpose of the Chief Culture
Officer is to develop and maintain the culture and
work on ways to keep true to the core values that
the company was founded on in the beginning —
a flat organization, a lack of hierarchy, a collaborative
it has grown, Google has found itself the focus of
several controversies related to its business practices
and services. For example, Google Book Search's effort
to digitize millions of books and make the full text
searchable has led to copyright disputes with the
Authors Guild. Google's cooperation with the governments
of China, and to a lesser extent France and Germany
(regarding Holocaust denial) to filter search results
in accordance to regional laws and regulations has
led to claims of censorship. Google's persistent cookie
and other information collection practices have led
to concerns over user privacy. A number of Indian
state governments have raised concerns about the security
risks posed by geographic details provided by Google
Earth's satellite imaging. Google has also been criticized
by advertisers regarding its inability to combat click
fraud, when a person or automated script is used to
generate a charge on an advertisement without really
having an interest in the product. Industry reports
in 2006 claim that approximately 14 to 20 percent
of clicks were in fact fraudulent or invalid.
of December 11, 2007, Google, like the Microsoft search
engine, stores "personal information for 18 months"
and by comparison, Yahoo! and AOL (Time Warner) "retain
search requests for 13 months".
has competitors on a number of fronts - most notably
search, but also advertising, blog hosting, mail (web,
pop, and more recently imap), and video hosting (having
added YouTube alongside Google Videos) among others.
the search space, their significant competitors are:
* Live Search
* Yahoo! (Credit:
Ultimate Search Engine Guide
Announces Five Strategic Initiatives
its continuing effort to use the power of information
and technology to help people better their lives,
Google.org rolled out five core initiatives that will
be the focus of its philanthropic efforts over the
next five to ten years. Google.org, the philanthropic
arm of Google, will collaborate with experienced partners
working in each of these fields, investing its resources
and tapping the strengths of Google’s employees
and global operations to advance its core initiatives.
The announcement includes more than $25 million in
new grants and investments to initial partners. The
resources come from a commitment by Google’s
founders to devote approximately 1 percent of the
company’s equity plus 1 percent of annual profits
to philanthropy, as well as employee time. In these
video clips, Google.org initiative leaders Mark Smolinksi
(Predict and Prevent) and Sonal Shah (Inform and Empower,
Fuel the Growth of SMEs) discuss the details and implementation
of the strategic initiatives.
News search for Google
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