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Packer - Andrew "Twiggy" Forrest Indigenous
Employment Tag Team
misery a goldmine for chequebook TV
Fairfax move shows wealth of WA - 1st February 2012
Australia has touted the wealth of its industry barons,
after one of the state's mining billionaires Gina
Rinehart spent almost $200 million increasing her
stake in publisher Fairfax Media.
Colin Barnett used the move by the nation's wealthiest
person to highlight the economic power of the resources
boom state, saying more national businesses were going
to be owned or have significant shareholdings by West
old Wesfarmers bought Coles, Kerry Stokes has bought
Channel 7 nationally, now maybe Gina Rinehart's going
to own Fairfax," he told reporters on Wednesday.
Story continues below
"The rest of Australia get used to it. This is
where the money is."
Rinehart's raid on Fairfax lifted her ownership of
the media group to just under 15 per cent, from 4.9
per cent, encouraging other investors into the stock,
which soared by 10 per cent.
investment makes Ms Rinehart the largest shareholder
in the company, which publishes The Age, The Sydney
Morning Herald and The Australian Financial Review
and owns a string of radio stations.
also entitles her to a seat on the board.
motivation was not clear on Wednesday, but the range
of speculation included that she was seeking more
influence in the national media, or just making a
strategic financial investment outside the mining
Rinehart also owns 10 per cent of Ten Network and
is a director of the television broadcaster.
Minister Stephen Conroy said although Ms Rinehart's
Fairfax push was not unlawful, it did throw a spotlight
on diversity in the media sector.
has always been the case in Australia over my lifetime
in politics that a small number of families have had
a controlling interest in the majority of the media
in this country," he told ABC radio.
she is seeking to exert her influence.
is she breaking the law? No."
Rinehart has campaigned against Labor's mining tax
and criticised the imposition of a carbon emissions
tax. Both are due to come into effect on July 1.
July, the government set up a convergence review to
study how to diversify opinion and ownership in the
review - which made a draft recommendation that a
public interest test be applied to any major transaction
in the media - will deliver its final report to Senator
Conroy in late March.
communications spokesman Scott Ludlum said the political
views of an individual should not prevent them from
buying stakes in media companies.
he argued Ms Rinehart's move was against the public
and the commercial influence only really matter when
you've got strong concentration of ownership as we
do in Australia," he told AAP.
analyst Peter Cox said Ms Rinehart probably wanted
to increase her influence in national affairs.
no way you'd be buying into either Ten or Fairfax
as a financial investment for the future in the media,"
he told ABC radio.
opposition treasury spokesman Joe Hockey was untroubled
by Ms Rinehart's decision, saying Fairfax had a strong
board and editorial independence.
arguably does not matter who owns the media company,"
he told ABC radio.
Rinehart is a good person and a good Australian."
shares closed up 7.5 cents, or 10.14 per cent, at
a three-month high of 81.5 cents on Wednesday. (Credit:
"Twiggy" Forrest Wins Media Man Social
and Community Entrepreneur Of The Month - May 2010
is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological
materials from the earth, usually (but not always)
from an ore body, vein, or (coal) seam. Materials
recovered by mining include bauxite, coal, copper,
gold, silver, diamonds, iron, precious metals, lead,
limestone, nickel, phosphate, oil shale, rock salt,
tin, uranium, and molybdenum. Any material that cannot
be grown from agricultural processes, or created artificially
in a laboratory or factory, is usually mined. Mining
in a wider sense can also include extraction of petroleum,
natural gas, and even water.
Miners at the Tamarack Mine in Copper Country, Michigan,
USA in 1905 The oldest known mine in the archaeological
record is the "Lion Cave" in Swaziland.
At this site, which by radiocarbon dating is 43,000
years old, paleolithic humans mined for the iron-containing
mineral hematite, which they ground to produce the
red pigment ochre. Sites of a similar age where Neanderthals
may have mined flint for weapons and tools have been
found in Hungary.
Egyptians operated malachite mines at Wady Maghareh
on the Sinai Peninsula and at Timna in the Negev.
At first, the bright green stones were used for ornamentation
and for pottery glaze, but approximately 1,200 BCE,
Egyptians discovered that malachite could be converted
into copper by the application of intense heat and
North America there are ancient, prehistoric copper
mines along Lake Superior that were part of an extensive
native trade network of copper tools, points, arrowheads,
and artifacts. Some copper points that were found
are over 3000 to 4000 years old, and copper was traded
throughout the continent along major river routes.
In addition, quartz, flint, and other minerals were
are also mined, worked, and traded. In Manitoba there
are ancient quartz mines in the north, and in Southeastern
Manitoba by the Winnipeg River in Whiteshell Provincial
was mined in pre-Columbian America in the Cerillos
Mining District in New Mexico, where a mass of rock
200 feet (60 m) in depth and 300 feet (90 m) in width
was removed with stone tools; the mine dump covers
20 acres (81,000 m²). Black gun powder in mining
was first used in a mineshaft under Banská
tiavnica, Slovakia in 1627, in the same town
in 1762 the first Mining Academy in the world was
in the United States became prevalent in the 19th
century. Mining for minerals and precious metals,
such as in the California Gold Rush in the mid 1800s,
was very important in westward expansion to the Pacific
coast along with ranching and exploration of oil and
gas fields. During this time period many white Americans
and post-slavery African Americans, with the aid of
railroads, traveled west for work opportunities in
mining. Many western cities such as Denver and Sacramento
originated as mining towns.
Steps in the mining process
Prospecting to locate ore
Exploration to find and then define the extent and
value of ore where it is located ("ore body")
Conduct resource estimate to mathematically estimate
the extent and grade of the deposit
Conduct mine planning to evaluate the economically
recoverable portion of the deposit (and including
Conduct a feasibility study to evaluate the total
project and make a decision as whether to develop
or walk away from a proposed mine project. This includes
a cradle to grave analysis of the possible mine, from
the initial excavation all the way through to reclamation.
Development to create access to an ore body
Exploitation to extract ore on a large scale
Reclamation to make land where a mine had been suitable
for future use
mining is a particular mining technique that is used
to mine minerals (potash, potassium chloride, sodium
chloride, sodium sulphate) which dissolve in water.
The science of extractive metallurgy is a specialized
area in the science of metallurgy that studies the
extraction of valuable metals and minerals from their
ores, especially through chemical or mechanical means.
Mineral processing (or mineral dressing) is a specialized
area in the science of metallurgy that studies the
mechanical means of crushing, grinding, and washing
that enable the separation (extractive metallurgy)
of valuable metals or minerals from their gangue (waste
Environmental effects and mitigation
Iron hydroxide precipitate stains a stream receiving
acid drainage from surface coal mining.Environmental
issues can include erosion, formation of sinkholes,
loss of biodiversity, and contamination of groundwaters
by chemicals from the mining process and products.
mining companies in many countries are required to
follow strict environmental and rehabilitation codes,
ensuring the area mined is returned to close to its
original state, or an even better environmental state
than before mining took place. In some countries with
pristine environments, such as large parts of Australia,
this is impossible despite the best intentions. Past
mining methods have had, and methods used in countries
with lax environmental regulations can continue to
have, devastating environmental and public health
can have adverse effects on surrounding surface and
ground water if protection measures are not exercised.
The result can be unnaturally high concentrations
of some chemical elements over a significantly large
area of surface or subsurface. Coal mining releases
approximately twenty toxic release chemicals, of which
85% is said to be managed on site. Combined with the
effects of water and the new 'channels' created for
water to travel through, collect in, and contact with
these chemicals, a situation is created where mass-scale
contamination can occur. In well-regulated mines hydrologists
and geologists take careful measures to mitigate any
type of water contamination that could be caused by
mines. In modern American mining, operations must,
under federal and state law, meet standards for protecting
surface and ground waters from contamination, including
acid mine drainage (AMD). To mitigate these problems
water is continuously monitored at coal mines. The
five principal technologies used to control water
flow at mine sites are: diversion systems, containment
ponds, groundwater pumping systems, subsurface drainage
systems, and subsurface barriers. In the case of AMD,
contaminated water is generally pumped to a treatment
facility that neutralizes the contaminants.
examples of environmental problems associated with
mining operations are:
Copper Mine, Ashio, Japan was the site of substantial
pollution at end of the nineteenth century
Berkeley Lake, an abandoned pit mine in Butte, Montana
that has filled with water which is now acidic and
poisonous. In 2003, a water treatment plant came on-line,
initially treating "new" water entering
the pit and thereby reducing the rate of rise of pit
water. Treated water is currently used in the concentrator
of the nearby Montana Resources Continental Pit, but
it is clean enough to return to Silver Bow Creek.
Eventually, water in the pit itself will be treated.
Britannia Mines, a former copper mine near Vancouver,
British Columbia. Copper from the abandoned mine washes
into Howe Sound, polluting the water. No animal life
remains there now. - Latest reports are that after
a water treatment plant was put in, fish are returning
to Britannia Bay - maybe for the first time ever.
The name used by the First Nations tribes of Britannia
Beach, even before mining started, means "The
Place of No Fish".
Scouriotissa, a copper mine in Cyprus that has been
abandoned. Contaminated dust blows off this site.
Tar Creek, an abandoned mining area in Picher, Oklahoma
that is now an Environmental Protection Agency superfund
site. Water in the mine has leaked through into local
groundwater, contaminating it with metals such as
lead and cadmium.
Although such issues have been associated with some
mining operations in the past, modern mining practices
have improved significantly and are subject to close
environmental scrutiny. To ensure completion of reclamation
(restoring mine land) the Office of Surface Mining
requires that mining companies post a bond to be held
in escrow until productivity of reclaimed land has
been convincingly demonstrated. Since 1978 the mining
industry has reclaimed more than 2 million acres (8,000
km²) of land. This reclaimed land has renewed
vegetation and wildlife in previous mining lands and
can even be used for farming and ranching.
While exploration and mining can sometimes be conducted
by individual entrepreneurs or small business, most
modern-day mines are large enterprises requiring large
amounts of capital to establish. Consequently, the
mining sector of the industry is dominated by large,
often multinational, mostly publicly-listed companies.
See Category:Mining companies for a list. However,
what is referred to as the 'mining industry' is actually
two sectors, one specializing in exploration for new
resources, the other specializing in mining those
resources. The exploration sector is typically made
up of individuals and small mineral resource companies
dependent on public investment. The mining sector
is typically large and multi-national companies sustained
by mineral production from their mining operations.
Employment in the U.S. mining industry and government
Miners today do more than just dig tunnels in the
Earth's subsurface. There are many different jobs,
direct and indirect, in the mining industry, ranging
from engineers and lab technicians to geologists and
environmental specialists. Beyond employment directly
linked to mine-site activity, the modern mining industry
also employs many other professionals, including accountants,
lawyers, sales representatives, public relations specialists,
not to mention thousands of men and women involved
who manufacture the machines and equipment necessary
to mine minerals.
in the mining industry offers highly competitive wages
and benefits, especially in rural or remote areas.
According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS),
wages for coal miners are 30% higher than the wage
earned by the average American. Employees possessing
at least a bachelor's degree in mining or geological
engineering can earn a median pay of over $80,000
US Bureau of Labor Statistics estimates that 675,000
are employed in the natural resources and mining sector.
Estimated employment by selected specific commodity
(including mine, mill, smelter, and quarry workers)
listed below is from US Geological Survey Mineral
Stone - 79,700 workers
Copper - 7,000
Cement - 18,000
Sand and Gravel - 38,300
Gold - 7,600
Aluminum - 56,000
Iron Ore - 4,400
Platinum Group Metals - 1,600
Salt - 4,100
Phosphate Rock - 2,900
The mining industry has an experienced but aging workforce
with a mean average age of 50 years and median of
46 years. Indeed, while the industry will require
new employees to meet future demand, the largest dilemma
currently facing mine operators is finding employees
to fill vacancies left by a generation of miners,
mine engineers, senior managers, technical experts
and others who are set to retire between 2005 and
2015. However, the industry is struggling to meet
that demand due to current low enrollment levels in
mining education programs at American colleges and
is regulated under a comprehensive federal safety
law (Federal Mine Safety and Health Act) that is administered
by the Department of Labor's Mine Safety and Health
Administration (MSHA). Currently under federal law,
and enforced by MSHA each U.S. miner must have an
approved worker training program in health and safety
issues, including at least 40 hours of basic safety
training for new underground miners with no experience;
24 hours for new miners at surface mines with no experience;
plus eight hours of annual refresher training for
Mine planning software
One of the most dramatic changes in the mining industry
has been the role that sophisticated three-dimensional
mine planning software packages have had. Once the
decision has been taken to proceed with a mine, one
will need to create detailed designs that take into
account the topography and infrastructure and of course,
the physical parameters of the orebody. Manual design
and old fashioned planning methods can be tedious
and there are many road blocks that were unique depending
on the nature of the mine (e.g., panel layouts, stope
designs, decline design, ramp design). Initially with
the 3-D technology relatively simple tasks - like
rendering graphic images of drill holes - meant that
it became easier for surveyors, geologists, mine planners,
mining engineers and other technical staff to manipulate
and visualize data. In recent years the range of integrated
mine planning tools have meant that massively complex
models can be built to optimize the extraction and
processing of mineral resources.
issues and improvements
Safety has long been a controversial issue in the
mining business especially with sub-surface mining.
While mining today is substantially safer than it
was in the previous decades, mining accidents and
tragedies are often very high profile such as the
Quecreek Mine Rescue saving 9 trapped Pennsylvania
coal miners in 2002.
ventilation is also seen to be a safety concern for
many miners and their family. Poor ventilation of
mining causes exposure to harmful gases, heat and
dust inside sub-surface mines. These can cause harmful
physiological effects or death. Methane gas is a common
source of ignition of explosions in coal mines and
can propagate into the more violent coal dust explosions.
High temperatures and humidity may result in any of
the heat illnesses including heat stroke which can
be fatal. Dusts can cause lung problems. These include
silicosis, asbestosis and pneumoconiosis also known
as miners lung or black lung disease.
ventilation system is set up to course air through
the working areas of the mine. The air movement necessary
for effective mine ventilation is generated by one
or more large mine fans usually located above ground.
In the United States, main fans at coal mines are
required to be above ground. Air flows in one direction
only, making circuits through the mine such that each
main work area receives a supply of fresh air.
is regulated under the federal Mine Safety and Health
Act by MSHA, which employs nearly one safety inspector
for every four coal mines. Underground coal mines
are thoroughly inspected at least four times annually
by MSHA inspectors. In addition, miners can report
violations, request additional inspections and cannot
lose their jobs for doing so.
reportable accidents and injuries are:
death of an individual at a mine;
An injury to an individual at a mine which has a reasonable
potential to cause death;
An entrapment of an individual for more than thirty
An unplanned inundation of a mine by a liquid or gas;
An unplanned ignition or explosion of gas or dust;
An unplanned mine fire not extinguished within 30
minutes of discovery;
An unplanned ignition or explosion of a blasting agent
or an explosive;
An unplanned roof fall at or above the anchorage zone
in active workings where roof bolts are in use; or,
an unplanned roof or rib fall in active workings that
impairs ventilation or impedes passage;
A coal or rock outburst that causes withdrawal of
miners or which disrupts regular mining activity for
more than one hour;
An unstable condition at an impoundment, refuse pile,
or culm bank which requires emergency action in order
to prevent failure, or which causes individuals to
evacuate an area; or, failure of an impoundment, refuse
pile, or culm bank;
Damage to hoisting equipment in a shaft or slope which
endangers an individual or which interferes with use
of the equipment for more than thirty minutes; and
An event at a mine which causes death or bodily injury
to an individual not at the mine at the time the event
Statistical analyses performed by the U.S. Department
of Labor's Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA)
show that between 1990 and 2004, the industry cut
the rate of injuries (a measure comparing the rate
of incidents to overall number of employees or hours
worked) by more than half and fatalities by two-thirds
following three prior decades of steady improvement.
Mining machinery resembles that of other heavy industries.
Heavy machinery is needed in mining to break and remove
rocks of diverse hardness and toughness. Bulldozers,
drills, explosives and trucks are important for digging
into the land, especially in surface mining. Underground
mining, like continuous mining, tends to be more technologically
sophisticated because of the dangers and expense of
subsurface tunneling. Mining equipment manufacturers
include Joy Mining Machinery, Bucyrus International,
Caterpillar, Komatsu, Volvo, Hitachi, Dynapac, Terex,
Dresser, TCM, Kawasaki, Furukawa, Elphinstone, Poclain
and Demag, Eimco Elecon India Limited.
Stay out of old mines! Danger sign at an old Arizona
mine.It is estimated that there are between 700,000
and 800,000 abandoned mines in the United States.
Many of these abandoned mines are associated with
abandoned neighboring towns often referred to as ghost
strongly warn against entering or exploring old or
abandoned mines. It is estimated that approximately
25% of the abandoned mine lands (AML) sites pose physical
safety hazards. Old mines are often dangerous and
can contain deadly gases, snakes, and other dangerous
animals. The entrance to an old mine in particular
can be very dangerous, as weather may have eroded
the earth/rock surrounding the entrance. Old mine
workings, caves, etc are commonly hazardous simply
due to the lack of oxygen in the air and this is a
deadly killer which provides no warning to those entering
such an environment.
year, dozens of people are injured or killed in recreational
accidents on mine property. It is only fair to note,
however, that the majority of these deaths are not
related to mine exploration. Drownings in open quarries
and ATV accidents on abandoned mine properties are
the main culprits behind these deaths. MSHA (Mine
Safety and Health Administration) launched the "Stay
Out Stay Alive" campaign in 1999. "Stay
OutStay Alive" is a national public awareness
campaign aimed at warning and educating children and
adults about the dangers of exploring and playing
on active and abandoned mine sites.
Abandoned Mine Land Initiative, launched by the Western
Governors Association, and the National Mining Association
is an effort focusing on reporting the number of high-priority
AML sites, and to identify, measure and report on
the progress of current reclamation cleanup programs
on an annual basis. (Credit: